Xopenex

Indications : Asthma

Pregnancy Category C

FDA Approved 1999 Mar

DRUG CLASS : : Adrenergic agonists; Bronchodilators

BRAND NAMES : Xopenex (US);

COST OF THERAPY : $ 178.20 (Asthma; Xopenex Solution; 0.63 mg; 3 ml; 3 doses/day; 30 days)

DESCRIPTION :

Xopenex inhalation solution is a sterile, clear, colorless, preservative-free solution of the hydrochloride salt of levalbuterol, the (R)-enantiomer of the drug substance racemic albuterol. Levalbuterol HCl is a relatively selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist. The chemical name for levalbuterol HCl is (R)-¥á1-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]methyl]-4-hydroxy-1,3-benzenedimethanol hydrochloride.

The molecular weight of levalbuterol HCl is 275.8, and its empirical formula is C13H21NO3¡¤HCl. It is a white to off-white, crystalline solid, with a melting point of approximately 187¡ÆC and solubility of approximately 180 mg/ml in water.

Levalbuterol HCl is the USAN modified name for (R)-albuterol HCl in the US.

Xopenex inhalation solution is supplied in unit-dose vials and requires no dilution before administration by nebulization. Each 3 ml unit-dose vial contains either 0.63 mg of levalbuterol (as 0.73 mg of levalbuterol HCl) or 1.25 mg of levalbuterol (as 1.44 mg of levalbuterol HCl), sodium chloride to adjust tonicity, and sulfuric acid to adjust the pH to 4.0 (3.3-4.5).

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY :

Activation of beta2-adrenergic receptors on airway smooth muscle leads to the activation of adenylcyclase and to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic-3¡Ç, 5¡Ç-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). This increase in cyclic AMP leads to the activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation. Levalbuterol relaxes the smooth muscles of all airways, from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles. Levalbuterol acts as a functional antagonist to relax the airway irrespective of the spasmogen involved, thus protecting against all bronchoconstrictor challenges. Increased cyclic AMP concentrations are also associated with the inhibition of release of mediators from mast cells in the airway.

While it is recognized that beta2-adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors on bronchial smooth muscle, data indicate that there is a population of beta2-receptors in the human heart that comprise between 10% and 50% of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors. The precise function of these receptors has not been established (see WARNINGS). However, all beta-adrenergic agonist drugs can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes.

Preclinical Studies

Results from an in vitro study of binding to human beta-adrenergic receptors demonstrated that levalbuterol has approximately 2-fold greater binding affinity than racemic albuterol and approximately 100-fold greater binding affinity than (S)-albuterol. In guinea pig airways, levalbuterol HCl and racemic albuterol decreased the response to spasmogens (e.g., acetylcholine and histamine), whereas (S)-albuterol was ineffective. These results suggest that most of the bronchodilatory effect of racemic albuterol is due to the (R)-enantiomer.

Intravenous studies in rats with racemic albuterol sulfate have demonstrated that albuterol crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches brain concentrations amounting to approximately 5.0% of the plasma concentrations. In structures outside the blood-brain barrier (pineal and pituitary glands), albuterol concentrations were found to be 100 times those in the whole brain.

Studies in laboratory animals (minipigs, rodents, and dogs) have demonstrated the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death (with histologic evidence of myocardial necrosis) when beta-agonists and methylxanthines are administered concurrently. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.

Pharmacokinetics

The inhalation pharmacokinetics of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution were investigated in a randomized cross-over study in 30 healthy adults following administration of a single dose of 1.25 mg and a cumulative dose of 5 mg of levalbuterol HCl Inhalation solution and a single dose of 2.5 mg and a cumulative dose of 10 mg of racemic albuterol sulfate inhalation solution by nebulization using a PARI LC Jet+ nebulizer with a DuraNeb 2000 compressor.

Following administration of a single 1.25 mg dose of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution, exposure, as measured by Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of (R)-albuterol, was 1.5 and 2 times greater, respectively, than that following administration of a single 2.5 mg dose of racemic albuterol sulfate inhalation solution (see TABLE 1). Following administration of a cumulative 5 mg dose of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution (1.25 mg given every 30 minutes for a total of 4 doses) or a cumulative 10 mg dose of racemic albuterol sulfate inhalation solution (2.5 mg given every 30 minutes for a total of 4 doses) Cmax and AUC of (R)-albuterol were comparable (see TABLE 1).

TABLE 1 Mean (SD) Values for Pharmacokinetic Parameters in Healthy Adults
Single Dose
Cumulative Dose
Levalbuterol HCl
Racemic albuterol sulfate
Levalbuterol HCl
Racemic albuterol sulfate
1.25 mg
2.5 mg
5 mg
10 mg
Cmax (ng/ml)
(R)-albuterol
1.1 (0.45)
0.8 (0.41)*
4.5 (2.20)
4.2 (1.51)*
Tmax (h)¢Ô
(R)-albuterol
0.2 (0.17, 0.37)
0.2 (0.17, 1.50)
0.2 (-0.18¢Ó, 1.25)
0.2 (-0.28¢Ó, 1.00)
AUC (ng¡¤h/ml)
(R)-albuterol
3.3 (1.58)
1.7 (0.99)*
17.4 (8.56)
16.0 (7.12)*
T¨ö (h)
(R)-albuterol
3.3 (2.48)
1.5 (0.61)
4.0 (1.05)
4.1 (0.97)
* Values reflect only (R)-albuterol and do not include (S)-albuterol.
¢Ó A negative Tmax indicates Cmax occurred between first and last nebulizations.
¢Ô Median (Min, Max) reported for Tmax.

Levalbuterol appears to be stereochemically stable in vivo and does not appear to interconvert metabolically to (S)-albuterol.

Pharmacodynamics

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 20 adults with mild-to-moderate asthma received single doses of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution (0.31, 0.63 and 1.25 mg) and racemic albuterol sulfate inhalation solution (2.5 mg). All doses of active treatment produced a significantly greater degree of bronchodilation (as measured by percent change from pre-dose in mean FEV1) than placebo and there were no significant differences between any of the active treatment arms. The bronchodilator response to 1.25 mg of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution and 2.5 mg of racemic albuterol sulfate inhalation solution were clinically comparable over the 6 hour evaluation period, except for a slightly longer duration of action (>15% increase in FEV1 from baseline) after administration of 1.25 mg of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution. Systemic beta-adrenergic adverse effects were observed with all active doses and were generally dose-related for (R)-albuterol. Lebalbuterol HCl inhalation solution at a dose of 1.25 mg produced a slightly higher rate of systemic beta-adrenergic adverse effects than the 2.5 mg dose of racemic albuterol sulfate inhalation solution.

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 12 adults with mild-to-moderate asthma were challenged with inhaled methacholine chloride 20 and 180 minutes following administration of a single dose of either 2.5 mg of racemic albuterol sulfate, 1.25 mg of levalbuterol HCl, 1.25 mg of (S)-albuterol, or placebo using a PARI LC Jet+ nebulizer. Racemic albuterol sulfate, levalbuterol HCl, and (S)-albuterol had a protective effect against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction 20 minutes after administration, although the effect of (S)-albuterol was minimal. At 180 minutes after administration, the bronchoprotective effect of 1.25 mg of levalbuterol HCl was comparable to that of 2.5 mg of racemic albuterol sulfate. At 180 minutes after administration, 1.25 mg of (S)-albuterol had no bronchoprotective effect.

In a clinical study in adults with mild-to-moderate asthma, comparable efficacy (as measured by change from baseline in FEV1) and safety (as measured by heart rate, blood pressure, ECG, serum potassium, and tremor) were demonstrated after a cumulative dose of 5 mg of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution (4 consecutive doses of 1.25 mg administered every 30 minutes) and 10 mg of racemic albuterol sulfate inhalation solution (4 consecutive doses of 2.5 mg administered every 30 minutes).

CLINICAL STUDIES :

The safety and efficacy of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution was evaluated in a 4 week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 362 adult and adolescent patients 12 years of age and older, with mild-to-moderate asthma (mean baseline FEV1 60% of predicted). Approximately half of the patients were also receiving inhaled corticosteroids. Patients were randomized to receive levalbuterol HCl 0.63 mg, levalbuterol HCl 1.25 mg, racemic albuterol sulfate 1.25 mg, racemic albuterol sulfate 2.5 mg, or placebo 3 times a day administered via a PARI Plus nebulizer and a PARI Dura-Neb portable compressor. Racemic albuterol delivered by a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) metered dose inhaler (MDI) was used on an as needed basis as the rescue medication.

Efficacy, as measured by the mean percent change from baseline in FEV1, was demonstrated for all active treatment regimens compared with placebo on Day 1 and Day 29. On both day 1 and day 29, 1.25 mg of levalbuterol HCl demonstrated the largest mean percent change from baseline in FEV1 compared to the other active treatments. A dose of 0.63 mg of levalbuterol HCl and 2.5 mg of racemic albuterol sulfate produced a clinically comparable mean percent change from baseline in FEV1 on both day 1 and day 29.

The mean time to onset of a 15% increase in FEV1 over baseline for levalbuterol at doses of 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg was approximately 17 minutes and 10 minutes, respectively, and the mean time to peak effect for both doses was approximately 1.5 hours after 4 weeks of treatment. The mean duration of effect, as measured by a >15% increase from baseline in FEV1, was approximately 5 hours after administration of 0.63 mg of levalbuterol and approximately 6 hours after administration of 1.25 mg of levalbuterol after 4 weeks of treatment. In some patients, the duration of effect was as long as 8 hours.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE :

Levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease.

CONTRAINDICATIONS :

Levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to levalbuterol HCl or racemic albuterol.

WARNINGS :

Paradoxical Bronchospasm

Like other inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists, levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be recognized that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister or vial.

Deterioration of Asthma

Asthma may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If the patient needs more doses of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution than usual, this may be a marker of destabilization of asthma and requires reevaluation of the patient and treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for anti-inflammatory treatment (e.g., corticosteroids).

Use of Anti-Inflammatory Agents

The use of beta-adrenergic agonist bronchodilators alone may not be adequate to control asthma in many patients. Early consideration should be given to adding anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., corticosteroids, to the therapeutic regimen).

Cardiovascular Effects

Lebalbuterol HCl inhalation solution, like all other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon after administration of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution, like all sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

Do Not Exceed Recommended Dose

Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs in patients with asthma. The exact cause of death is unknown, but cardiac arrest following an unexpected development of a severe acute asthmatic crisis and subsequent hypoxia is suspected.

Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of racemic albuterol, as demonstrated by rare cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, and oropharyngeal edema. The potential for hypersensitivity must be considered in the clinical evaluation of patients who experience immediate hypersensitivity reactions while receiving levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution.

PRECAUTIONS :

General

Levalbuterol HCl, like all sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias; in patients with convulsive disorders, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus; and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Clinically significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been seen in individual patients and could be expected to occur in some patients after the use of any beta-adrenergic bronchodilator.

Large doses of intravenous racemic albuterol have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. As with other beta-adrenergic agonist medications, levalbuterol may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease is usually transient, not requiring supplementation.

Information for the Patient

See the Patient Instructions that are distributed with the prescription.

The action of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution may last up to 8 hours. Lebalbuterol HCl inhalation solution should not be used more frequently than recommended. Do not increase the dose or frequency of dosing of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution without consulting your physician. If you find that treatment with levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution becomes less effective for symptomatic relief, your symptoms become worse, and/or you need to use the product more frequently than usual, you should seek medical attention immediately. While you are taking levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution, other inhaled drugs and asthma medications should be taken only as directed by your physician. Common adverse effects include palpitations, chest pain, rapid heart rate, headache, dizziness, and tremor or nervousness. If you are pregnant or nursing, contact your physician about the use of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution.

Effective and safe use of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution requires consideration of the following information in addition to that provided in the Patient Instructions that are distributed with the prescription.

Lebalbuterol HCl inhalation solution single-use low-density polyethylene (LDPE) vials should be protected from light and excessive heat. Store in the protective foil pouch between 15-25¡ÆC (59-77¡ÆF). Do not use after the expiration date stamped on the container. Unused vials should be stored in the protective foil pouch. Once the foil pouch is opened, the vials should be used within 2 weeks. Discard if the solution is not colorless.

The drug compatibility (physical and chemical), efficacy, and safety of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution when mixed with other drugs in a nebulizer have not been established.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

No carcinogenesis or impairment of fertility studies have been carried out with levalbuterol HCl alone. However, racemic albuterol sulfate has been evaluated for its carcinogenic potential and ability to impair fertility.

In a 2 year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, racemic albuterol sulfate caused a significant dose-related increase in the incidence of benign leiomyomas of the mesovarium at and above dietary doses of 2 mg/kg (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis). In another study, this effect was blocked by the coadministration of propranolol, a nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. In an 18-month study in CD-1 mice, racemic albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 270 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis). In a 22-month study in the Golden hamster, racemic albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses up to 50 mg/kg (approximately 35 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis).

Levalbuterol HCl was not mutagenic in the Ames test or the CHO/HPRT Mammalian Forward Gene Mutation Assay. Although levalbuterol HCl has not been tested for clastogenicity, racemic albuterol sulfate was not clastogenic in a human peripheral lymphocyte assay or in an AH1 strain mouse micronucleus assay. Reproduction studies in rats using racemic albuterol sulfate demonstrated no evidence of impaired fertility at oral doses up to 50 mg/kg (approximately 55 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis).

Pregnancy, Teratogenic Effects, Pregnancy Category C

A reproduction study in New Zealand White rabbits demonstrated that levalbuterol HCl was not teratogenic when administered orally at doses up to 25 mg/kg (approximately 110 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis). However, racemic albuterol sulfate has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and rabbits. A study in CD-1 mice given racemic albuterol sulfate subcutaneously showed cleft palate formation in 5 of 111 (4.5%) fetuses at 0.25 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis) and in 10 of 108 (9.3%) fetuses at 2.5 mg/kg (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis). The drug did not induce cleft palate formation when administered subcutaneously at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis). Cleft palate also occurred in 22 of 72 (30.5%) fetuses from females treated subcutaneously with 2.5 mg/kg of isoproterenol (positive control).

A reproduction study in Stride Dutch rabbits revealed cranioschisis in 7 of 19 (37%) fetuses when racemic albuterol sulfate was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg (approximately 110 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis).

A study in which pregnant rats were dosed with radiolabeled racemic albuterol sulfate demonstrated that drug-related material is transferred from the maternal circulation to the fetus.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

During marketing experience of racemic albuterol, various congenital anomalies, including cleft palate and limb defects, have been rarely reported in the offspring of patients being treated with racemic albuterol. Some of the mothers were taking multiple medications during their pregnancies. No consistent pattern of defects can be discerned, and a relationship between racemic albuterol use and congenital anomalies has not been established.

Labor and Delivery

Because of the potential for beta-adrenergic agonists to interfere with uterine contractility, the use of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution for the treatment of bronchospasm during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risk.

Tocolysis

Levalbuterol HCl has not been approved for the management of preterm labor. The benefit:risk ratio when levalbuterol HCl is administered for tocolysis has not been established. Serious adverse reactions, including maternal pulmonary edema, have been reported during or following treatment of premature labor with beta2-agonists, including racemic albuterol.

Nursing Mothers

Plasma levels of levalbuterol after inhalation of therapeutic doses are very low in humans, but it is not known whether levalbuterol is excreted in human milk.

Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for racemic albuterol in animal studies and the lack of experience with the use of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution by nursing mothers, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Caution should be exercised when levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution in children less than 12 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Data on the use of levalbuterol HCl in patients 65 years of age and older are very limited. A very small number of patients 65 years of age and older were treated with levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution in a 4 week clinical study (see CLINICAL STUDIES) (n=2 for 0.63 mg and n=3 for 1.25 mg). In these patients, bronchodilation was observed after the first dose on day 1 and after 4 weeks of treatment. There are insufficient data to determine if the safety and efficacy of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution are different in patients <65 years of age and patients 65 years of age and older. In general, patients 65 years of age and older should be started at a dose of 0.63 mg of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution. If clinically warranted due to insufficient bronchodilatoar response, the dose of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution may be increased in elderly patients as tolerated, in conjunction with frequent clinical and laboratory monitoring, to the maximum recommended daily dose (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

DRUG INTERACTIONS :

Other short-acting sympathomimetic aerosol bronchodilators or epinephrine should be used with caution with levalbuterol. If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used with caution to avoid deleterious cardiovascular effects.

Beta-Blockers : Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents not only block the pulmonary effect of beta agonists such as levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution, but may also produce severe bronchospasm in asthmatic patients. Therefore, patients with asthma should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, e.g., as prophylaxis after myocardial infarction, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in patients with asthma. In this setting, cardioselective beta-blockers could be considered, although they should be administered with caution.
Diuretics : The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of non-potassium sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of beta agonists with non-potassium sparing diuretics.
Digoxin : Mean decreases of 16% and 22% in serum digoxin levels were demonstrated after single-dose intravenous and oral administration of racemic albuterol, respectively, to normal volunteers who had received digoxin for 10 days. The clinical significance of these findings for patients with obstructive airway disease who are receiving levalbuterol HCl and digoxin on a chronic basis is unclear. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to carefully evaluate the serum digoxin levels in patients who are currently receiving digoxin and levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors or Tricyclic Antidepressants : Lebalbuterol HCl inhalation solution should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of levalbuterol HCl on the vascular system may be potentiated.

ADVERSE REACTIONS :

Adverse events reported in ¡Ã2% of patients receiving levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution or racemic albuterol and more frequently than in patients receiving placebo in a 4 week, controlled clinical trial are listed in TABLE 2.

TABLE 2 Adverse Events Reported in a 4 Week, Controlled Clinical Trial
Lebalbuterol HCl
Racemic albuterol
Body System
Placebo
1.25 mg
0.63 mg
2.5 mg
Preferred Term
(n=75)
(n=73)
(n=72)
(n=74)
Body as a Whole
Allergic reaction
1.3%
0%
0%
2.7%
Flu syndrome
0%
1.4%
4.2%
2.7%
Accidental injury
0%
2.7%
0%
0%
Pain
1.3%
1.4%
2.8%
2.7%
Back pain
0%
0%
0%
2.7%
Cardiovascular System
Tachycardia
0%
2.7%
2.8%
2.7%
Migraine
0%
2.7%
0%
0%
Digestive System
Dyspepsia
1.3%
2.7%
1.4%
1.4%
Musculoskeletal System
Leg cramps
1.3%
2.7%
0%
1.4%
Central Nervous System
Dizziness
1.3%
2.7%
1.4%
0%
Hypertonia
0%
0%
0%
2.7%
Nervousness
0%
9.6%
2.8%
8.1%
Tremor
0%
6.8%
0%
2.7%
Anxiety
0%
2.7%
0%
0%
Respiratory System
Cough increased
2.7%
4.1%
1.4%
2.7%
Infection viral
9.3%
12.3%
6.9%
12.2%
Rhinitis
2.7%
2.7%
11.1%
6.8%
Sinusitis
2.7%
1.4%
4.2%
2.7%
Turbinate edema
0%
1.4%
2.8%
0%

The incidence of certain systemic beta-adrenergic adverse effects (e.g., tremor, nervousness) was slightly less in the levalbuterol HCl 0.63 mg group as compared to the other active treatment groups. The clinical significance of these small differences is unknown.

Changes in heart rate 15 minutes after drug administration and in plasma glucose and potassium 1 hour after drug administration on day 1 and day 29 were clinically comparable in the levalbuterol HCl 1.25 mg and the racemic albuterol 2.5 mg groups (see TABLE 3). Changes in heart rate and plasma glucose were slightly less in the levalbuterol HCl 0.63 mg group compared to the other active treatment groups (see TABLE 3). The clinical significance of these small differences is unknown. After 4 weeks, effects on heart rate, plasma glucose, and plasma potassium were generally diminished compared with day 1 in all active treatment groups.

TABLE 3 Mean Changes from Baseline in Heart Rate at 15 Minutes and in Glucose and Potassium at 1 Hour After First Dose (Day 1)
Mean Changes (day 1)
Treatment
Heart Rate
Glucose
Potassium
Lebalbuterol HCl 0.63 mg, n=72
2.4 bpm
4.6 mg/dl
-0.2 mEq/L
Lebalbuterol HCl 1.25 mg, n=73
6.9 bpm
10.3 mg/dl
-0.3 mEq/L
Racemic albuterol 2.5 mg, n=74
5.7 bpm
8.2 mg/dl
-0.3 mEq/L
Placebo, n=75
-2.8 bpm
-0.2 mg/dl
-0.2 mEq/L

No other clinically relevant laboratory abnormalities related to administration of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution were observed in this study.

In the clinical trials, a slightly greater number of serious adverse events, discontinuations due to adverse events, and clinically significant ECG changes were reported in patients who received levalbuterol HCl 1.25 mg compared to the other active treatment groups.

The following adverse events, considered potentially related to levalbuterol HCl, occurred in less than 2% of the 292 subjects who received levalbuterol HCl and more frequently than in patients who received placebo in any clinical trial.

Body as a Whole Chills, pain, chest pain.
Cardiovascular System : ECG abnormal, ECG change, hypertension, hypotension, syncope.
Digestive System : Diarrhea, dry mouth, dry throat, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, nausea.
Hemic and Lymphatic System : Lymphadenopathy.
Musculoskeletal System : Leg cramps, myalgia.
Nervous System : Anxiety, hypesthesia of the hand, insomnia, paresthesia, tremor.
Special Senses : Eye itch.

The following events, considered potentially related to levalbuterol HCl, occurred in less than 2% of the treated subjects but at a frequency less than in patients who received placebo: asthma exacerbation, cough increased, wheezing, sweating, and vomiting.

OVERDOSAGE :

The expected symptoms with overdosage are those of excessive beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the symptoms listed under ADVERSE REACTIONS (e.g., seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats/min, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, and sleeplessness). Hypokalemia also may occur. As with all sympathomimetic medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with the abuse of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution. Treatment consists of discontinuation of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution together with appropriate symptomatic therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. There is insufficient evidence to determine if dialysis is beneficial for overdosage of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution.

The intravenous median lethal dose of levalbuterol HCl in mice is approximately 66 mg/kg (approximately 70 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose of levalbuterol HCl for adults on a mg/m2 basis). The inhalation median lethal dose has not been determined in animals.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION :

The usual starting dosage of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution for patients 12 years of age and older is 0.63 mg administered 3 times a day, every 6-8 hours, by nebulization.

Patients 12 years of age and older with more severe asthma or patients who do not respond adequately to a dose of 0.63 mg of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution may benefit from a dosage of 1.25 mg three times a day. Patients receiving the higher dose of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution should be monitored closely for adverse systemic effects, and the risks of such effects should be balanced against the potential for improved efficacy.

The use of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution can be continued as medically indicated to control recurring bouts of bronchospasm. During this time, most patients gain optimal benefit from regular use of the inhalation solution.

If a previously effective dosage regimen fails to provide the expected relief, medical advice should be sought immediately, since this is often a sign of seriously worsening asthma that would require reassessment of therapy.

The drug compatibility (physical and chemical), efficacy, and safety of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution when mixed with other drugs in a nebulizer have not been established.

The safety and efficacy of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution have been established in clinical trials when administered using the PARI LC Jet and the PARI LC Plus nebulizers, and the PARI Master and Dura-Neb 2000 compressors. The safety and efficacy of levalbuterol HCl inhalation solution when administered using other nebulizer systems have not been established.

HOW SUPPLIED :

Xopenex inhalation solution is supplied in 3 ml unit-dose, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) vials as a clear, colorless, sterile, preservative-free, aqueous solution in two different strengths of levalbuterol (0.63 mg, 1.25 mg).
Storage: Store the Xopenex inhalation solution in the protective foil pouch between 15-25¡ÆC (59-77¡ÆF). Protect from light and excessive heat. Keep unopened vials in the foil pouch. Once the foil pouch is opened, the vials should be used within two weeks. Discard the vial if the solution is not colorless.

HOW SUPPLIED – EQUIVALENTS NOT AVAILABLE :
Solution — Inhalation — 0.63 mg/3 ml
    3 ml x 24 $49.92 Xopenex Sepracor. 63402-0512-24
Solution — Inhalation — 1.25 mg/3 ml
    3 ml x 24 $49.92 Xopenex Sepracor. 63402-0513-24
    3 ml x 96 $190.08 Xopenex Sepracor. 63402-0513-96
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